What are the factors that affect the quality of CNC machining precision parts

Today, mechanization and automation have become the mai...
Today, mechanization and automation have become the mainstream of industry development. In the application process of machinery and equipment composed of various parts, problems are prone to occur due to the lack of coordination or cooperation of some parts. Raw material specifications, properties, material usage, machine vibration, clamping pressure or loosening, elastic deformation process system, worker operations, testing methods, inspector errors, etc., all have an impact on the quality of processed products. When we talk about the quality of a working prototype, it's not hard to think of the following 5 main factors:
1. Operator
As cnc machine functions become more complex, the level of programming and operators varies widely. Combining the superb skills of humans with computer information technology can maximize the use of machines. To do this, machine operators must be familiar with equipment performance. If the operator does not know enough about the performance of the equipment, he may misuse it, which will accelerate the wear of machine parts and even cause damage to the machine.
Therefore, it will require a lot of repair costs and a long maintenance time. In order to restore the original accuracy of the equipment, CNC machine tool operators must understand and master the machine tool manual and its operation precautions, so as to achieve civilized production and safe processing. It is necessary to strengthen the skills training for all processing and production staff, reasonably arrange primary and secondary processing positions, and improve personnel's quality awareness and work responsibility.
2. Machines
A complete CNC machining system consists of machine tools, workpieces, fixtures and tools. Machining accuracy is related to the accuracy of the entire process system. Various errors of the process system will manifest as machining tolerances in different forms under different circumstances.
CNC machine accuracy is an important factor affecting the quality of prototype parts. When the accuracy of the machine is poor, some parts are damaged or the gap of each part is not adjusted properly, various defects will appear in the prototype during the CNC machining process.
Therefore, we must not only choose the appropriate turning angle, appropriate cutting amount and CNC machining method, but also understand the influence of machine tool accuracy on the CNC machining quality. The maintenance of the machine directly affects the processing quality and production efficiency of the prototype. All machines must be properly maintained in order to ensure working accuracy and prolong their working life. Usually after the machine has been running for 500 hours, first-level maintenance is required.
3. CNC machining method
There are many kinds of CNC machining methods, and cutting machining is the most common one. During the cutting process, the workpiece is subjected to changes in force and heat, and the physical and mechanical properties of the metal material will also be slightly hardened, so the selection of the tool plays an important role.
In general, the material for making the tool should be selected according to the material of the workpiece to be machined. Otherwise, thorns related to the tool will be formed on the surface of the workpiece, which will easily increase the roughness of the workpiece and reduce the surface quality. In addition to tool factors, cutting environment and cutting conditions, such as cutting amount, cutting lubrication, etc., also affect the processing quality.
In the CNC machining process, the machining system is the general commander of the entire cutting process. All CNC machining processes are performed according to the system, so the precision and rigidity of the machining system are also one of the main factors affecting the machining quality.
There are two principles for the arrangement of processing technology:
Processing dispersion: use multiple processes to manufacture complex parts and decompose them into multiple machines for processing.
Processing concentration: the functions of the composite machine, such as CNC turned parts and milling, laser ultrasonic vibration processing, grinding, five-axis linkage, etc.
All processes are completed by one machine. According to the structural analysis of the workpiece, the use of different processing methods is also an important factor affecting the processing quality.
4. Materials
Machining materials are generally divided into plastics and metals. Each material has its own characteristics. It is also important to select the right material during machining according to the requirements and application of the workpiece. Material consistency is better, otherwise the quality of the same part may vary. When the hardness of the material is suitable, try to ensure that the material is not deformed. These are important prerequisites for assessing quality.
5. Inspection
After the machine has finished machining the workpiece, inspection is the last critical step before delivery to the customer. Machining inspection generally needs to pay attention to two aspects:
1. Inspection procedure - The inspection process includes the inspection process, as well as relevant regulations, systems, standards, etc. Generally speaking, the inspection process is to inspect the intervention and intervention methods in the production process, including first inspection, self-inspection, mutual inspection and full-time inspection.
2. Inspection method - refers to how to inspect and inspect the standard. The inspection of machined parts is generally based on mechanical drawings, and the products are inspected through inspection instruments and measuring tools.
Traditional Machining Inspection vs. More Modern Machining Inspection
Traditional machining testing instruments include micrometers, dial indicators, vernier cards, planes, rulers, levels, and various plug gauges, ring gauges, etc. More modern mechanical processing testing instruments include optical collimators, projectors, three-dimensional measuring instruments, theodolites, laser detectors, etc.
Qualified mechanical product inspectors must master the knowledge of inspection instruments and measuring tools related to unit products.
In the process of cnc processing, in order to control the processing quality, it is necessary to understand and analyze the various influencing factors that the processing quality cannot meet the requirements, and at the same time take effective technical measures to overcome them.
With the continuous improvement of modern production level, the requirements for the quality of machined products are also getting higher and higher. Only by taking comprehensive measures for quality control can we finally achieve the purpose of increasing the service life of the equipment and improving the service life of the equipment, taking into account economic benefits and energy saving in the processing process. At the same time, to ensure the quality of machining, in order to promote the long-term and stable development of the machining industry.